What is Cancer ?
Cancer is a general term which refers to a collection of related diseases. Cancer is uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the body’s naturally controlled mechanism stops working. Old cells stop dying and instead grow uncontrollably, forming new and abnormal cells. In all types of cancer, some of the body’s cells start dividing without stopping and spread into surrounding tissues.
Cancer can start from almost any part in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. These abnormal cells have the ability to infiltrate and destroy normal body tissue. The disease also has the ability to spread in your whole body by means of lymph systems and blood. Cancer cannot be specified as one disease rather it is a group of many diseases.
Breast cancer is a cancer in which cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be felt as a lump in the breast. The tumor formed is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body.
If it’s not given medical attention on time, breast cancers can grow bigger and can spread outside the breast forming new tumors by travelling through lymph and blood vessels. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer diagnosed in women after skin cancer. Breast cancer can occur in both women and men, but it’s more common in women
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer in which cells in the prostate gland start growing uncontrollably. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland found only in males. Just Behind the prostate are seminal vesicles that produce and stores the majority of the fluid that makes up semen. The prostate is located below the bladder and in front of the rectum.
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer that develops only in men. Usually, prostate cancer is a slow-growing cancer and is initially confined to the prostate gland, where it may not cause serious harm. However, some prostate cancers are aggressive and can spread outside the confines of the prostate gland, which can even cause death. If prostate cancer detected at an early stage it has a better chance of successful treatment and recovery.
Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the endometrium which is the inner lining of the uterus. Endometrial cancer develops when cells in the endometrium begin to grow out of control.
Endometrial cancer is also called uterine cancer. Other types of cancer can form in the uterus, including uterine sarcoma, but the chances of them are very less compared to endometrial cancer. It is the most common type of cancer in females that affects the female reproductive organs. Endometrial cancer is usually detected at an early stage because it frequently produces abnormal vaginal bleeding.
If endometrial cancer is discovered at an early stage, it can be treated and cured by surgically removing the uterus. It normally affects those aged over 55 years.
Kidney cancer is a type of cancer in which healthy cells in one or both kidneys begin to grow uncontrollably and form a lump called a tumor. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. It begins in the lining of very small tubes in the kidney called ‘renal tubules’. The function of renal tubules is to clean your blood and make urine. Usually, renal cell cancer is confined to the kidney, but it may spread to other parts of the body, most often the bones, lungs and brain.
Wilms tumor is the most common type of kidney cancer that is diagnosed in kids. About 9 out of 10 kidney cancers in children are Wilms tumor. Cancer found in the centre of the kidney is known as transitional cell carcinoma.
If kidney cancer is diagnosed in early stages, it can be treated and cured
Gastric cancer, also known as stomach cancer, is the growth of cancerous cells within the lining of the stomach. It is the second major cancer worldwide. Gastric cancer is majorly of 4 types.
Adenocarcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed gastric cancer. Almost 90% to 95% of the gastric cancers are adenocarcinoma. These cancers develop from the cells that form the innermost lining of the stomach called mucosa. Lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system tissue that is sometimes found in the wall of the stomach. A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) are rare tumors that start in very early forms of cells in the wall of the stomach called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). Carcinoid tumors start in hormone-making cells of the stomach. These tumors usually do not spread to other organs.
Throat cancer refers to cancerous tumors that develop due to uncontrolled cell growth in the throat (pharynx), voice box (larynx) or tonsils. Most throat cancers are squamous cell carcinomas, throat cancer most often begins in the squamous cells that line the inside of your throat.
Throat cancer is generally grouped into two categories: those are pharyngeal cancer and laryngeal cancer. Major causes of throat cancer are smoking and using tobacco products and drinking too much alcohol. Symptoms of throat cancer are trouble in Swallowing and Breathing, Voice changes like hoarseness and cracking, Headache, Neck lump, Unexplained weight loss, a long-lasting cough, bleeding in the mouth or nose. The survival rate depends upon the stage of cancer and the area affected.
Colon Cancer (Intestine Cancer)
Colon cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the Large Intestine called Colon. The colon is the final part of the digestive system where the body extracts water and salt from solid wastes. The remaining waste then moves through the rectum and exits the body through the anus.
Colon cancer usually develops as a small, noncancerous clump of cells called polyps that form on the inside of the colon, With the time some of these polyps can become colon cancers. Colon cancer and rectal cancer may occur at the same time then it is called colorectal cancer.
Usually, there are no major symptoms in the earliest stages, but symptoms may develop as the cancer advances. Some common symptoms are diarrhoea or constipation, blood in the stool, changes in stool consistency, abdominal pain, weakness or fatigue etc.
Firm and lump feeling in your breast or under your arm can be a sign of cancer.
Change in nipple or discharge. Discharge from the breast is common, but some forms of discharge may be signs of cancer. If blood is coming out in discharge from only one nipple.
Skin changes may be an early sign of breast cancer such as redness, scaliness, or thickening of the nipple or breast skin.
Swelling and pain in the breast.
Changes in bladder or bowel habits.
Unusual blood in urine ,trouble and pain while urinating.
Frequent urination, small amounts of urine, and slow urine flow or a general change in bladder function
Constipation and diarrhea for long duration.
Change in the size of the stool may be a symptom of colon cancer.
Long- lasting cough or hoarseness
A cough that does not go away easily can be a sign of lung cancer.
Voice changes like hoarseness and cracking can be a sign of throat cancer.
A white or red patch on the tongue or in your mouth.
Bleeding, pain, or numbness in the lip or mouth.
A flesh-colored lump that bleeds or turns scaly.
A sore that does not heal.
Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes can be a sign of skin cancer.
Swelling or lumps
Swelling or lumps in any part of the body such as in the neck, underarm,
stomach, and groin.
There are many medical treatment options are available for treating cancer.The treatment will depend on the type of cancer and how advanced it is and its location in the body. The following are the most common treatments of cancer. These are:
Surgery is the most effective treatment procedures for cancer in which a surgeon removes cancer before it has spread to lymph nodes or distant sites (metastasized).In this procedure either laser or conventional instruments are used.
In radiation therapy, high doses of radiation are used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.the cancer cells and their genetic substances are destroyed by the powerful and focused beam of radiation in the area being treated. Radiation therapy makes it impossible for cancer cells to grow again.
In chemotherapy anticancer drugs are used to kill the rapidly-dividing cells.These anti-cancer drugs are given by injecting into a muscle, applying to the skin, by mouth or into the vein.This depend on the type of cancer and drug and this therapy is usually provided in cycles.
Hormone Therapy is a cancer treatment which slow down or stop the growth of cancer that uses hormones to grow. In this treatment hormones are used for changing the way hormones helps the cancer grow in the body. Hormone therapy is used to treat breast cancer and prostate cancer. Hormone therapy is also called endocrine therapy, hormone treatment or hormonal therapy.
Stem Cell Transplant:
Stem cell transplant is also known as bone marrow transplant. The Bone Marrow Transplant procedure involves removing unhealthy bone marrow and transplanting the healthy bone marrow with a healthy bone marrow stem cells from a donor is called the transplantation of bone marrow. This will treat the patient with the following things such as Treats Blood cancer, Disease like Aplastic anaemia and Any genetic disease. Bone marrow transplants are also known as Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The hollow centres of bone marrow have spongy tissues which are the bone marrow. The blood cells are produced by these specialist stem cells which are supremely beneficial. The bone marrow provides 3 types of stem cells such as Platelets, White blood cells and Red blood cells.
Immunotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that helps our immune system to fight cancer. The immune system helps our body to fight all diseases and infections. it is made up of white blood cells, proteins, tissues, and organs of the lymph system. Immunotherapy also reduces the side effects that have developed due to some other cancer treatments.
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